Wednesday, July 1, 2020
Introduction This paper provides a critical discussion of the different models of change management with a focus on the models proposed by Kurt Lewin (1958), John Kotter (1995) and the McKinsey 7S model (1982) developed by Tom Peters and Robert Waterman. Understanding Change Given the wide diversity in the nature and type of change experienced by individuals and organisations, no single definition of change exists. However, there is a general consensus that change is a constant feature of organisational life (Bamford and Daniel, 2005), and that it is constantly increasing in terms of its frequency, magnitude and unpredictability (Burnes, 2009). Jones (2007) defined organisational change as the way in which organisations move from one state to another to increase their effectiveness, and Greenan (2003) stated that it involves a re-distribution of power, information and skills. Similarly, Saif et al (2013) assert that effective change management is essential for organisational development and ultimately survival, and yet studies have shown that around 60% of change initiatives fail (CIPD, 2015) SigniÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã cant work has been done to characterise the nature of change, the forces that drive it and the processes through which it can be achieved, and this has resulted in a number of models and theories that claim to capture change (Saif et al, 2013). All approaches, however, are dependent to some extent on the wider strategic and environmental context in which an organisation operates. According to Pettigrew et al (1992) this context is the why and when of change and takes account of the external context such as the current political, economic and social environment, and also the internal contextual factors such as organisational culture, structure and capabilities. Lewins 3 Step Change Model One of the most widely recognised of these change models was provided by Kurt Lewin (1958) who became the pioneer of planned change with the introduction of his three-step change model in the 1950s. The steps in this model include: unfreezing- where the current equilibrium is destabilised to allow any old behaviours to be discarded and the desired new behaviours to be adopted; moving where individuals are supported to move from less acceptable to more acceptable behaviours through different change initiatives; and re-freezing where the new behaviours become embedded in every-day practice to allow stability at a new equilibrium as shown in Figure 1: Figure 1 Lewins 3-Step Change Model Source: Carpenter, Bauer and Erdogen, 2009 According to Cameron and Green (2009), Lewins model provides a useful tool for those considering organisational change, particularly when used in conjunction with his force field analysis technique which provides a focus for management teams to debate the resisting and driving forces for change. They claim that through using this model, a team can quickly move on to identifying the next steps in the change process. However, Lewins model has attracted major criticism in that it assumes that organisations operate within a stable environment, it is a top-down approach, and fails to give consideration to issues around organisational power and politics (Burnes, 2004). In addition, its linear approach has been found to be too inflexible in certain scenarios such as in times of instability and uncertainty in the external and internal environment (Bamford and Forrester, 2003). In addition, it has been claimed that such a model is only relevant to incremental and isolated change projects which therefore makes it unable to tackle transformational change (Dawson, 1994). Kotters 8 Step Model Lewins model has been adapted and re-created in many different forms (McWhinney, 1992). In particular, the work of John Kotter (1995) can easily be mapped against Lewins model (Higgs and Rowand, 2005), but instead provides a more practical eight-step approach to change management (Todnem By, 2005). Kotter initially developed his change model by observing for-profit businesses, but it is claimed that it has applicability to public and third sector organisations also (Nitta et al, 2009). Kotters model was based upon his observations of the main mistakes made in organisations which were seeking to transform themselves and he proposed eight key steps to success (see Figure 2): Figure 2 Kotters 8 Step Model Source: Adapted from: Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009 Within Kotters model, the different steps are: Step 1: Increase Urgency: according to Bond (2007) this first step is important in generating the activation energy to start the process of change. External pressures can help to achieve this sense of urgency such as legislative forces or threat of new competition. Kotter (1998) claimed that failure to adequately complete this step is one of the most frequent causes of failure overall. Step 2: Build the Guiding Team: with the sufficient power and influence to lead the change (Appelbaum et al, 2012). Step 3: Get the Right Vision: that clearly articulates what the change is, why it is needed and how it will be achieved. Step 4: Communicate Buy In: by telling all key stakeholders in a range of different ways the what, why and how of the change, so that they understand and support the change initiative. Step 5: Empower Action: by facilitating individuals to support the change. Successful change usually requires sufficient resources to support and empower the process (Fernandez and Rainey, 2006). Step 6: Create Short Term Wins: and giving recognition for the work done. Short-term wins provide visible evidence that the change is worth it and justified. Acknowledging these successes builds morale and momentum whilst also gaining crucial buy-in (Gupta, 2011). Step 7: Dont Let Up: consolidate the gains achieved and create further momentum by developing people as change agents (Appelbaum et al, 2012). Step 8: Make it Stick: and anchor the change within the culture of the organisation. According to Fernandez and Rainey (2006), for change to be enduring, members of the organisation must incorporate the new practices into their daily routine. Kotters model is generally considered to provide a practical and logical approach to managing change, and has been found to have a high level of appeal amongst managers with it still being used extensively today (Cameron and Green, 2009). However, despite this it has been criticised for a number of reasons. One of the key criticisms is that there is a lack of follow through and that it peaks too early (Cameron and Green, 2004). Other critics suggest that this approach is based on an often unfounded assumption that individuals will resist change (Kelman, 2005), and that where resistance does occur, there is insufficient explanation of the reasons why (King and Anderson, 2002). In addition, Sidorko (2008) argues that Kotter makes no concessions to the fact that his model is ordered sequentially and that all steps must be followed. He claims that from his study of organisational change and the use of the model, there is often a need to build multiple guiding coalitions on multiple occ asions which is something that Kotter fails to acknowledge. Both Lewins and Kotters models focus specifically on planned change and it is this factor that is the target of most criticism. It is claimed that their models are inadequate in a range of circumstances, particularly where the given change is just one of a multiplicity of changes happening within the organisation (Carnall, 2007). Similarly, other critics argue that change cannot be viewed as a linear sequence which can be applied to processes that are in reality messy and untidy (Buchanan and Storey, 1997). McKinsey 7S The McKinsey 7S Model was developed in the early 1980s by Tom Peters and Robert Waterman. It is differentiated from other change theories as instead of proposing steps that must be taken in a particular order, the framework looks at the separate elements and how well they work and interact with each other). The 7S in the model describes the seven variables, termed levers which form the framework (Peters and Waterman, 1982), as shown in Figure 3: Figure 3 The McKinsey 7S Model Source: Jurevicius, 2013 In Figure 3, it can be seen that the seven S variables include: Strategy: which is the plan that is formulated to sustain competitive advantage Structure: which is the way the organisation is structured and its reporting mechanisms Systems: are the daily activities employees undertake to get the job done Shared Values: are the organisations core values that are demonstrated in the corporate culture Style: refers to the leadership style adopted Staff: are the employees Skills: the skills and competencies of the individual employees. Shared Values are located in the centre of the model, to highlight that these are central to the development of all the other critical components, and the seven interdependent factors which are categorised as either hard or soft elements. The hard elements are easier to identify and can be directly influenced including strategy, structure and systems. The soft elements are much less tangible and are more influenced by organisational culture. One of the benefits of the model is that is can be used to understand how the different organisational elements are interconnected and so how a change in one area can impact on the others. To be effective, an organisation must have a high degree of internal alignment amongst all of the seven Ss each must be consistent with and reinforce the others (Saif et al, 2013). In addition, according to Rasiel and Friga (2002), the benefits of the McKinsey 7S model include the fact that it provides a diagnostic tool for managers to identify areas that are ineffective and combines the rational and hard elements of organisations alongside the softer, more emotional elements. Criticisms of the McKinsey 7S model, however, claim that it does not offer any guidance on how to proceed once any areas of non-alignment have been identified (Grant, 2008). In addition, Bhatti (2011) argues that the model fails to take account of the importance of resources. Without additional resources such as finance, information, technology, and the time, any change initiative cannot be effectively implemented (Higgins, 2005). Discussion According to Sidorko (2008) all of these change models have a role to play in supporting organisational change, but advises that they must be implemented cautiously and complemented with effective leadership. He claims that without such leadership, the models are merely a strict prescription for change that may not fit the organisations needs and which may result in more harm than good. He claims that instead of applying such change models prescriptively, they should instead be used selectively and adaptively to accommodate the culture and environment of the organisation. This view is supported by Graetz and Smith (2010) who claim that in practice, it may be useful to account for contextual variables and adapt chosen change models accordingly. MacBryde et al (2014) claim that change models such as those examined in this paper, are too abstract for practical application, and are generalised to the extent where they are at risk of missing the actual detail of what is happening. A further criticism of change management models in general, is that there is a lack of evaluation built into the process and yet critics claim that such evaluation is key to successful and sustainable change (Moran and Brightman, 2000). Conclusion In conclusion, this paper has provided a critical discussion of some of the most commonly cited change management models. It is evident that all three have been considered to have some practical benefit in terms of aiding the process of change in organisations and our understanding of it, and across all three models, it is clear that there is a high level of commonality amongst them. However they have all been subjected to criticism due to their abstract nature. It has been argued that they oversimplify the process of change, lack evaluation, and do not take sufficient account of the often turbulent business context and environment in which organisational change occurs. In addition, it is clear that no matter how robust the change model, it will be ineffectual unless complemented by effective leadership. It has been proposed that given this, change models such as those provided by Lewin, Kotter and the McKinsey 7S, should be used as a guide rather than a panacea, and applied flexibly to best match the culture and environment of the organisation and the nature of the change itself. References Appelbaum, S.H., Habashy, S., Malo, J.L. and Shafiq, H. (2012) Back to the future: revisiting Kotters 1996 change model, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 31 (8), pp. 764-782. Bamford, D. and Daniel, S. (2005) A Case Study of Change Management Effectiveness within the NHS, Journal of Change Management, Vol. 5 (4), pp. 391-406. Bamford, D.R. and Forrester, P.L. (2003) Managing planned and emergent change within an operations management environment, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol. 23 (5), pp. 546 564. Bhatti, O.K. (2011) Strategy Implementation: An Alternative Choice of 8Ss, Annals of Management Research, Vol. 1 (2), pp. 52-59. Bond, M.A. (2007) Workplace chemistry: promoting diversity through organizational change, New England: University Press of New England. Buchanan, D. A. and Storey, J. (1997). Role-taking and role-switching in organizational change: the four pluralities. In McLoughlin, I. and Harris, M. (Eds), Innovation , Organizational Change and Technology. London: International Thompson. Burnes, B. (2009) Managing Change. 5th edn. Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited. Burnes, B. (2004) Kurt Lewin and the Planned Approach to Change: A Re-appraisal, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 41 (6), pp. 977-1002. Cameron, E. and Green, M. (2004) Making Sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools techniques of organizational change, London: Kogan Page Publishers. Carnall, C. A. (2007) Managing Change in Organizations. Essex: Person Education. Carpenter, M., Bauer, T. and Erdogen, B (2009) Principles of Management, Flat World Knowledge available at: Available at: https://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/NC/B0/B58/047MB58.html CIPD. (2015). Change Management, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/change-management.aspx [accessed 22 May 2015]. Dawson, P. (1994) Organizational Change: A Processual Approach. Paul Chapman Publishing: London. Day, G. and Leggat, S. (2015) Leading and managing health services, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. Department for Children, Schools and Families. (2009) Change Management Models. Available at: https://www.dcsf.gov.uk/everychildmatters/strategy/deliveringservices/servicedirectories/models/changemanagementmodels/ Fernandez, S. and Rainey, H. G. (2006) Managing Successful Organisational Change in the Public Sector, Public Administration Review, Vol. 66 (2), pp.168-176. Grant, P. (2008) The productive ward round: a critical analysis of organisational change, The International Journal of Clinical Leadership, Vol.16 (4), pp. 193-201. Graetz, F. and Smith, A.C.T. (2010), Managing organizational change: a philosophies of change approach, Journal of Change Management, Vol. 10 (2), pp. 135-154. Greenan, N. (2003) Organisational change, technology, employment and skills: an empirical study of French manufacturing, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 27 (2), pp. 287-316. Gupta, P. (2011) Leading Innovation Change The Kotter Way, International Journal of Innovation Science, Vol. 3 (3), pp. 141-149. Higgs, M. and Rowland, D. (2005) All Changes Great and Small: Exploring Approaches to Change and its Leadership, Journal of Change Management, Vol. 5 (2), pp.121-151. Higgins. J.M. (2005) The Eight Ss of Successful Strategy Execution, Journal of Change Management, Vol. 5 (1), pp. 3-13. Jones, G.R. (2007) Organisational Theory, Design, and Change, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Jurevicius, O. (2013) McKinsey 7s Model. Available at: https://www.strategicmanagementinsight.com/tools/mckinsey-7s-model-framework.html Kelman, S. (2005) Unleashing change: A study of organizational renewal in government, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. King, M. and Anderson, N. (2002) Managing Innovation and Change, Sydney: Thomson. Kotter, J.P. (1995) Leading Change: Why Transformation Effort s Fail, Harvard Business Review, March-April, pp. 59-67. Kotter, J.P. (1998) Winning at Change, Leader to Leader, Vol.10, pp.27-33. Lewin, K. (1958) Group decisions and social change. In Swanson, G.E., Newcomb, T.M. and Nartley, E.L. (Eds), Readings in Social Psychology, Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, New York, NY. MacBryde, J., Paton, S., Bayliss, M. and Grant, N. (2014) Transformation in the defence sector: The critical role of performance measurement, Management Accounting Research, Vol. 25 (2), pp. 157-172. McWhinney, W. (1992) Paths of change, Newbury Park: Sage. Moran, J. and Brightman, B. (2000), Leading organisational change, Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 12 (2), pp. 66-74. Nitta, K.A., Wrobel, S.L., Howard, J.Y. and Jimmerson-Eddings, E. (2009) Leading Change of a School District Reorganization, Public Performance and Management Review, Vol.32 (3), pp. 463-488. Peters, T. and Waterman, R. H. (1982). In search of excellence. New York, NY: Harper and Rowe. Pettigrew, A.,Ferlie, E. McKee, L. (1992). Shaping strategic change: making change in large organizations, the case of the National Health Service. London: Sage. Rasiel, E.M. and Friga, P.N. (2002) The McKinsey Mind, US: McGraw-Hill. Saif, N., Razzaq, N., Rehman, S.U., Javed, A. and Ahmad, B. (2013) The concept of change management in todays business world, Information and Knowledge Management, Vol. 3 (6), pp. 28-33. Sidorko, P.E. (2008), Transforming library and higher education support services: can change models help?, Library Management, Vol. 29 (4/5), pp. 307-318. Todnem By, R. (2005) Organisational Change Management: A Critical Review, Journal of Change Management, Vol. 5 (4), pp. 369-380.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
SPECIALIZATION AMONG OTHER HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS: When we say that medical specialization is an outgrowth of scientific discovery, entrepreneurial practice as well as technological development, nursing specialization was also a recent response to this system of specialized medicine (Palmeiere 1981). This leads us to the discourses on how to tap the expertise of these specialized nurses into rendering services in remote and underserved areas in a country. There are numerous examples of how family nurse practitioners have bridged the gaps in the generalist physician shortages in many parts of USA. And hence in places like India it is high time we explore such possibilities where they can be incorporated into the health care team especially in primary and secondary levels. In the BRICS countries and specifically in Brazil and South Africa, nurses are the first-point-of-contact and back bone of primary care in the healthcare system. Such possibilities should be explored in countries like India as well. Similarly we can see that there are other areas within the context of health sciences that is moving towards the trend towards specialization, for instance, medical social work. Trend of specialization has pervaded into the field of pharmaceutical sciences and other health disciplines such as dentistry, physiotherapy etc. However, looking at the larger picture, similar to the field of medicine some of the challenges of specialization in other health care professions includeShow MoreRelatedTrend Towards Specialization : A Comparative History Of Medical Specialization Essay1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTREND TOWARDS SPECIALIZATION According to the Council of Medical Colleges in New Zealand the term Ã¢â¬ËgeneralistÃ¢â¬â¢ is used to refer to a vocationally registered doctor who works in primary or secondary care working with undifferentiated patients or in undifferentiated practice within their particular specialty area (Council of Medical Colleges 2013). They are trained across a broad curriculum and are the first point of contact with the health system for most of the patients. 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Nurse administers are familiar with organizational developments and employee relations. They are well versed in legal and ethical issues and address problems concerning these issues at their health institution when they ariseRead MoreSchool Profile : University Of Alabama Essay1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmaster s degree and 35 doctoral programs. These academic divisions include the Schools of Business, Dentistry, Education, Engineering, Health Professions, Medicine, Nursing, Optometry and Public Health. Two popular graduate degrees include the Master of Science in Nursing program and the associated Doctor of Science in Nursing program. The universityÃ¢â¬â¢s sponsored Health System is actually one of the largest academic medical centers in the country. Medical students can easily transfer to a medical specialty
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 1996 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/03/11 Category Law Essay Level High school Topics: Capital Punishment Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Martin Luther King Jr. once stated, Ã¢â¬Å"The old law of an eye for an eye leaves the whole world blind.Ã¢â¬ In this quote, he is referring to the ancient Babylonian law, the Code of Hammurabi. HammurabiÃ¢â¬â¢s code justified the death penalty by reasoning that if somebody kills another, then they should be killed for their actions. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Capital Punishment is Costly" essay for you Create order HammurabiÃ¢â¬â¢s Code was the first death penalty law established, and it dates back to the 18th century B.C. The death penalty is still in place today and is a barbaric, severe, and irreversible punishment. The death penalty should be abolished because it does not deter future murderers, there is no crime that justifies taking a life, and it is applied unfairly. To begin, the question of whether capital punishment, in the manner it is being imposed now, deters criminals from committing murder anymore than sentencing them to life without parole. While most criminologists, an overwhelming 84%, agree that the death penalty does not deter crime, it is very difficult to determine if it does or not, statistically (Ã¢â¬Å"Arguments for and Against the Death PenaltyÃ¢â¬ ). Proving the death penalty as a deterrent has been a burden on opponents of the death penalty since the debate began. Studies such as those conducted by Isaac Ehrlich determined a clear relationship between the death penalty and deterrence of crime. In EhrlichÃ¢â¬â¢s studies, he found that for every execution, seven lives were spared. Studies like these have been imitated and followed up, but have been widely discredited. The National Research Council of the National Academies Deterrence Report claim that studies on deterrence are flawed in three ways. Firstly, studies do not factor in the deterrence of noncapital punishments on the population (Ã¢â¬Å"DETERRENCE: National Research Council Concludes Deterrence Studies Should Not Influence Death Penalty Policy.Ã¢â¬ ). Secondly, they do not properly calculate in the perception of potential murdersÃ¢â¬â¢ to the use of capital punishment. Lastly, these studies are invalid because they use estimates and assumptions that are not credible. The Wilson Quarterly states that there are not enough executions to base a study off of and the murder rate varies dramatically from year to year, which makes it even harder to statistically conclude the validness of deterrence in the argument for capital punishment (Does the Death Penalty Deter?). While it is statistically very difficult to conclude whether or not capital punishment serves as a deterrent against future crime, there is more Ã¢â¬Å"obviousÃ¢â¬ evidence that it does not. In the United States, 30 states still practice the death penalty. Comparatively, the states who do not practice capital punishment generally have lower murder rates than those who do. In 2016, the average murder rate for states that employ capital punishment was 5.4, but the average for those who do not was only 3.9 (Ã¢â¬Å"Murder Rates Nationally and By State.Ã¢â¬ ). It is also evident nationally that capital punishment does not serve as a deterrent. Canada abolished capital punishment in 1976, and since then the murder rate has decreased by 25% (Lamperti, John). The American Civil Liberties Union also states that police chiefs, when asked, rank the death penalty as the least effective way to reduce violent crime (Ã¢â¬Å"The Case Against the Death PenaltyÃ¢â¬ ). Capital punishment is costly. It costs taxpayers money. The death penalty has cost California $4 billion dollars since 1978. Of that, $1.94 billion of the $4 billion went to pre-trial and trial costs alone (Ã¢â¬Å"Costs of the Death PenaltyÃ¢â¬ ). According to Safe California.org, abolishing capital punishment would save taxpayers $150 million each year (Ã¢â¬Å"How Much Does Californias Death Penalty Cost?Ã¢â¬ ) In summation, it is mostly inconclusive as to whether or not capital punishment actually deters crime, but a majority of elite criminologists agree that it does not. Most evidence refutes that capital punishment has no real effect on the murder rate, and because of its costly natures and the unethical nature of the practice, deterrence of murder is not a valid justification for capital punishment. Secondly, it is argued that a just society must take the life of someone who takes another. Those who support capital punishment argue that when a person kills another they upset a balance, and this is how they justify allowing state sanctioned murder. This is the idea of retribution, and is essentially the same as vengeance. It is argued that this vengeance provides closure to families and closure to the murdererÃ¢â¬â¢s crime. However, retribution does not justify taking oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life in response to taking another. Retribution is rooted in the doctrines of HammurabiÃ¢â¬â¢s code. These doctrines such as Ã¢â¬Å"an eye for an eyeÃ¢â¬ should not be applied to the modern judicial system. These are not ideals of a progressive society because vengeance is a purely instinctual and emotional response. Punishing a person completely out of emotion is not appropriate, particularly with the risks involved. Also, justifying capital punishment by arguing that it provides more closure for families is invalid. As stated by B. Jones, the prolonged legal process associated with capital cases makes capital punishment less closing for victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ families. In most cases, life without parole provides just as much closure without condoning violence and it avoids the risks of wrongly executing a defendant. In summation, retribution does not justify capital punishment. It is not progressive, nor does capital punishment necessarily provide more closure to victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ families than what life without parole would. It is obvious that life without parole would satisfy the innate need to accomplish retribution by taking the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s rights away for life, but it does so in a more suitable manner for modern society with the consideration of ethical treatment of humans. Lastly, the death penalty should be abolished because it is applied unfairly. Some argue that because every case is unique, then it is applied fairly. Those who support the death penalty acknowledge that discretion is a significant idea within our justice system, but they fail to recognize the racial biases that occur, the biases created when choosing a jury for capital cases, and the geographical disparities that occur. Those who support the death penalty believe that justice must be achieved for whoever, despite their race, where they live, and the jury who decides their fate. Supporting the death penalty means wanting justice for all, even if punishments are not applied proportionally to everyone. Despite, the death penalty is arbitrarily dulled out. Justice should be achieved for all, but it should be achieved proportionally. A defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s race, town, or lawyer should not determine if they live or die. This should not be an issue at all. Taking oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life in order to achieve justice, and not considering if that person is executed fairly is immoral. There are biases that are created within the jury of capital cases. Courts can eliminate certain jurors if they are not willing to sentence someone to death. This is called the death qualification process, and does not occur in normal juries. Jurors are questioned extensively on their views regarding capital punishment, and often asked to consider the different sentencing options. If they believe that a person can be executed for certain crimes, that juror becomes death qualified. The judge can also eliminate jurors if they believe that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s views may affect their ability to properly choose the punishment f or capital cases. When a judge eliminates a juror, this is called a Ã¢â¬Å"for cause dismissal.Ã¢â¬ A judge can eliminate an unlimited number of potential jurors under this. The jurors who are not dismissed by the judge, can be dismissed by the lawyers for no reason at all. This is a peremptory dismissal, and it is obvious how this could cause a jury to be very biased. Lawyers have a limited number of peremptory dismissals, and are not allowed to dismiss anyone solely on the basis of their gender, race, or religious beliefs. These eliminations cause juries for capital cases to not be an accurate representation of the general population. White male conservatives are more likely to be in favor of capital punishment, and are more common on capital case juries. The death qualification process eliminates about 15% of whites and 25% of blacks (Ã¢â¬Å"Death QualificationÃ¢â¬ ). Capital case juries are also more biased to a guilty prosecution of 2 reasons. One, it selects jurors who are more conviction prone. Secondly, the death qualification process suggests jurors that the defendant is guilty because punishment is so heavily discussed before the case is heard. In summation, death qualification makes juries more conviction prone because of the people it selects and the process itself makes jurors more likely to convict a defendant. Capital cases are also subject to being heavily racially biased. Capital punishment is used disproportionately against blacks, and seems to place more value in white lives. The American Bar Association states that Ã¢â¬Å"race is more likely to affect death sentencing than smoking affects the likelihood of dying from heart disease.Ã¢â¬ Marc Macdougall and Karen Williams from the American University Law Review also claim that black defendants are more likely to be sentenced to capital punishment than white defendants. They state that 26 of 61 of the inmates sentenced to the death penalty by the federal courts are black and 41% of inmates sentenced to the death penalty by the states are black. Mark MacDougall Karen Williams from the American University Law Review also state that defendants whose victims were white are more likely to receive the death penalty than those whose victims were of color. Baldus data reveals that the death penalty was sought in 70% of cases with black defen dants and white victims, but was the death penalty was sought only 19% of the time in cases involving white defendants and black victims (MacDougall, Mark J., and Karen D. Williams). It is truly heartbreaking to find that race plays such a large role in who receives the death penalty. Conclusion Also, according to Iuliano, J from the American University Law Review, geographical disparities sway death sentencing significantly . Discretion plays a large part in the justice system. Despite, similar crimes should be punished in the same manner. Cases qualifying for the death penalty are subject to review by elected officials who do not undergo any procedure review. These elected officials are allowed to dull out the death penalty to qualifying cases, at their discretion. This means that if the official in one county or state supports the death penalty, the death penalty may be given out more frequently. Vice versa applies, officials in another county or state who oppose the death penalty are less likely to sentence sentence someone to the death penalty. This means that if a similar crime is committed in 2 different areas, one defendant may be sentenced to death and the other to life without parole. In summation, life without parole is a better alternative to capital punishment. Capital punishment should be abolished entirely and such a barbaric punishment has no place in the modern justice system. Life without parole is a less permanent punishment option that does not include the risks of executing an innocent person. It also provides just as much closure to victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ families because it does not require as lengthy of a prosecution process as capital cases do. Life without parole is also a much cheaper sentencing option, and is also not subject to the biases and disparities that capital cases are. If capital punishment was abolished, punishments would be uniform and would not differ from area to area. Defendants would also not have to rely on biased juries to decide the fate of their lives. It is never right to take another personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, no matter the circumstances. The state should not have the power to decide who lives and dies, especially when they do it in such arbitrary ways. Society as a whole should be weary of the laws put in place, and also be educated on their rights. At first glance, capital punishment is easily justified, but when looked at closely, it is obvious of how wrong it is. Forming personal opinions on controversial topics by educating yourself is crucial.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Shylock in The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare Shylock is certainly an interesting character made even more intriguing by Shakespeares portrayal of him. Much before the twentieth century, anti-Semitism was rife and The Merchant of Venice is a curious tale, as we are able to see how Jews were viewed in the late 1500s - especially as Shakespeares depiction was at odds with the accepted anti-Jewish prejudiced views in that he considers both sides of the argument. This play is an insight into the general opinions of Jews, the daily hostility facing them Shakespeares time and helps us understand why the hatred facing them through the agesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Shylock may not like the people he is dealing with, but he adores the rewards of dealing with them. However, our opinion of Shylock drastically changes when Antonio enters. Before, he seemed like an unfairly persecuted Jew, hated only because of his race and usury. But, once the merchant arrives, Shylock states, I hate him for he is a Christian, (I, iii, l. 35) and then rattles off a plethora of reasons why he dislikes him so. What strikes the reader is that, coming from someone often facing prejudice, Antonio is hated not for personal reasons or particular wrongs, but because of his profession and religion. Though, Shylock can be sympathised with a little later when confronted with Antonios flagrant superciliousness and unfounded moral superiority. Shylock displays a deep-rooted enmity for Antonio because they have been long-standing enemies, while he is more civil and forthcoming toward Bassanio. However, his hostile and antagonistic attitude towards others does nothing to alleviate the disapprobation and antipathy he faces - Shylock would be much more easily accepted if he di d not constantly refer to his Judaism and behave in such an Ã ©litist manner. In Act II, scene ii, we can understand Shylock from the angle of him as an employer. Launcelot clearly dislikesShow MoreRelatedShylock as a Villian or Victim in The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShylock as a Villian or Victim in The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare The Merchant Of Venice is the story of Antonio, a merchant, borrowing money from Shylock, a Jewish moneylender, in order to fund his best friend BassanioÃ¢â¬â¢s romantic ambitions. Like the majority of the habitants of Venice, Antonio is Christian. At the time of the play, the sixteenth century, there was a huge abhorrence against those who were not Christian. As Antonio needed money quickly he hadRead MoreIs Shylock The Villain Or Victim In The Merchant Of Venice By William Shakespeare1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCharacter Analysis Shylock Is Shylock the villain or the victim in the Merchant of Venice? In the play the Ã¢â¬ËMerchant of VeniceÃ¢â¬â¢ by William Shakespeare the antagonist Shylock is both the victim and the villain. Shylock is a Jewish moneylender and is initially portrayed as anger filled and bloodthirsty but as the play continues we begin to see him as more human and his emotions become more evident. As the antagonist, Shylock is a fearful adversary to Antonio, the protagonist. But as good begins toRead MoreEssay about Shylock in The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare1704 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShylock in The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare William Shakespeares The Merchant of Venice contains an array of interesting and complex characters. From the alternately generous and grasping Antonio to the alternately love stricken and exploitative Bassanio to the vulnerable and manipulative Portia, this play has an abundance of multi-layered personalities. However, one of the most intriguing characters is also the most oft-vilified and minimized in the work. This characterRead MoreEssay on Imperfect Faith in The Merchant of Venice891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Merchant of Venice Ã Ã Ã Though William Shakespeare accurately portrays both Christianity and Judaism in his play The Merchant of Venice, the characters in the play do not represent their religions well. A reader unfamiliar with these religions could easily misinterpret flaws in a characters nature as the teachings of his religion. After a preliminary glance at the play, one would assume that Shakespeare wrote unjustly of the two religions depicted therein. However, Shakespeare hadRead More Is The Merchant of Venice an Anti-Semitic Play? Essay1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIs The Merchant of Venice an Anti-Semitic Play? Ã Ã Ã The Merchant of Venice features a Jewish character that is abused and slandered by nearly every character in the play. Throughout the play the behavior of these characters seems justified. In this way, The Merchant of Venice appears to be an anti-Semitic play. However, The Merchant of Venice contains several key instances, which can be portrayed in a way that criticizes anti-Semitism. The first instance occurs in Act 1, scene 3 whenRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice 1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNikki Vietz Ms. Seibel Honors English 12 1 May 2015 Was Shakespeare Prejudice? The premise of William Shakespeare comedy, The Merchant of Venice, is the hostile relationship between Shylock, a Jewish moneylender, and Antonio, a Christian trader. The two gentlemen have a deep history of hatred due to personal injuries and AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to collect interest on loans. This hatred comes to a climax when AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s friend, Bassanio wishes to borrow three thousands ducats from Antonio so he can travelRead MoreShakespeare and Anti-Semitism in the Merchant of Venice1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnearly five thousand years. In the Elizabethan era, a question of anti-Semitism invariably arises. In William Shakespeares The Merchant of Venice, we find that one of the characters is the embodiment and expression of anti-Semitic attitude that is pervasive in Elizabethan society. Anti-Semitism was an intricate part in Shakespeares years. Jews were considered vile and scorned upon. Shakespeare presents Judaism as an unchangeable trait (Bloom 37). Shakespeare s age based their anti-SemitismRead MoreRacism And Prejudice By William Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice Essay1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestheir religion and what they believe in, however there is racism and prejudice present in the world. William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s The Merchant of Venice is one of his most controversial plays. Written in the 16th century England, the play poses many questions concerning racial, religious and human differences due to anti-semitism being very common at the time. The story is set in Venice where a merchant named Antonio lived. His poor friend Bassanio wants to charm and marry a lovely, rich girl of BelmontRead MoreAnti-Semitism and Racism in the Merchant of Venice1019 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnti-Semitism and racism in The Merchant Of Venice. Anti-Semitism and the desecration of the Jewish population have been in existence for nearly five thousand years. In William Shakespeares Ã¢â¬Å"The Merchant of VeniceÃ¢â¬ , we find that one of the characters is the subject and expression of anti-Semitic attitude that is persistent in Elizabethan society. William Shakespeares Ã¢â¬Å"The Merchant of VeniceÃ¢â¬ contains many examples that insult Jewish heritage because they were the minority in London in ShakespeareanRead MoreMerchant Of Venice Critical Analysis Essay1001 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Merchant Of Venice is structured partly on the contrast between idealistic and realistic opinions about society and relationships. The play tells us mercy is preferable to revenge. Shylock chose revenge over mercy against Antonio and how his choices affected him. The Court of Venice begging mercy of Shylock. Finally, Portia forgiving Bassanio for giving away his wedding band. Shakespeare characterised Shylock in such way that he highlights the inequalities of him, them being ungrateful, vengeful
The young African American girl, Ruby Bridges, in the painting titled, Ã¢â¬Å"The Problem We All Live WithÃ¢â¬ is shown in an illustration as she overcame discrimination, racism, and educational inequalities. Six-year old Ruby Bridges in the painting is shown wearing white clothes with her hair neatly braided as she carries her book and ruler. The girl is confident and proud as she walks with four marshals at her side. She seems to pay no attention to the foul language on the wall and the tomato splashed around it (Brown). This painting captures only one moment of Ruby Bridges life and demonstrates her struggle to overcome such obstacles in order to obtain an education. Ruby Bridges contributes to history as she forms a road between the past of segregation and a new era of true equality that would come. From the time period of the Civil War till the brave actions of Ruby Bridges and her family, African American families struggled to have real equality in America. African Americans were expected to fight for the country alongside whites and die for them, but they failed to be properly recognized like the whites. Although slavery had disappeared segregation was the main problem. For 100 years, the South slowly tried to adapt and change, but it ultimately was failing. New laws were being formed in favor of the African Americans; however, it was very hard to enforce them. In 1890, Louisiana became an important setting for the national debate on the segregation of blacks and whites inShow MoreRelatedWhy Is A Nigger White Under His Feet And Under Their Palms?755 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesindividual being but itÃ¢â¬â¢s their personality and how they interact with others that gives you hints at it. The problem we all live with was made by a white artist Norman Rockwell during the racial segregation.It was painted as an iconic image of American civil rights .The story of that painting is about a girl called Ruby Bridges she was six years old an African Amrican girl.She was on her way to all white school people in New Orleans during the racial segration time.Due to the violence and threats againstRead MoreRacial Issues and Segregation in Schools Today724 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesdramatic changes like being forced to integrate, but the fact of the matter is, school segregation is still an issue today. Having our children exposed to segregation from such a young age is a problem. It is important for everyone to see as human beings that this issue is not personal, but it affects us all. Children are our future and they cannot be hand fed separation from such a young age. 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This painting (Figure 1) portrays Ruby Bridges, the first black child to integrate in New Orleans, on her way to her first day of school. This moment was met with a lot of protest from parents and students throughout New Orleans, as many people were opposed to integration. Rockwell uses this painting to show that Ã¢â¬Å"what many of [the] whites considered to be a Ã¢â¬ËproblemÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¦ was not a problem at allÃ¢â¬ (Gallagher Zagacki 184). Rockwell gives Ruby a stiff, unnaturalRead MoreEnvironmental Psychology875 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOlubunmi Ruby Akinsanya Environmental Psychology/460 10/5/2010 Richard Hill Title of Paper Why do individuals act differently in different social settings? Environmental Psychology is the field of psychology which studies the way human behavior is affected by their environment. Environment refers to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s social setting, which can change consistently. Ã (Fisher, 2007). Social settings and educational settings, professional settings and home settings can all be very differentRead More Gloria Naylors Mama Day Essay940 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOnly a worn-out bridge built in 1920 connects the inhabitants to the mainland, but the people of Willow Springs are entirely self-sufficient. They believe in the ways of their African ancestors and respect the heritage of Sapphira Wade, the original Mother who convinced her master to deed the island to his slaves. They live in the present yet believe in the power of supernatural forces and herbal or root medicine. Mama Day, whose imposing presence in Willow Springs is felt by all of the inhabitantsRead MoreThe Problem We All Live with (1964)1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmost famous paintings in the sixties all over the world because it was one of the first paintings which have denounced the violence of the Segregation. Norman Rockwell, an American illustrator, was involved in the desegregation and by this painting, aimed at make Americans aware that Segregation is based on wrong ideas such as the superiority of whites on blacks. His most famous masterpiece, which is here, is entitled The problem with all live with. The word problem means Segregation. Thus, it dealsRead MoreGraduation Speech : An Aspiring Elementary Educator1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAs an aspiring elementary educator, my goal is to bridge the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge to their curiosity. I will provide the facts that will drive their curiosity to asking questions that are relevant to the past and the future. I do not believe that avoiding inquiry is the most beneficial teaching method for my students because no student is Ã¢â¬Å"too youngÃ¢â¬ to understand the events that have shaped our country and our world. There is always a method to teach difficult content in an honest, truthful manner
Ã¢â¬Å"I was born to dance. It is said that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fall out of my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s womb; I danced out, my tiny body wriggling and flailing like a wild woman.Ã¢â¬ These lines come from the first page of a book that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a New York Times best-seller or a selection from OprahÃ¢â¬â¢s Book Club. In fact, fewer than 50 copies of this book exist worldwide, and perhaps even fewer people than that have read these lines. But that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter because these thirty words are mine; they begin my novel, Deaf Girls DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Dance.Unlike my realistic but still fictional narrator, Margaret, I was not born to dance. I was born to write. Ever since my chubby five-year-old fingers first pressed pencil to paper, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been hooked. My career as an author began in first grade when I wrote and illustrated a Ã¢â¬Å"bookÃ¢â¬ about sherbs, fictional sherbet-loving creatures. We will write a custom essay sample on Born to write or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Although my first authorial endeavor did not have immediate success, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give up. Throughout elementary school and junior high I spent the free time I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t using for reading to write skits, screenplays, and short stories. By the time sophomore year rolled around, I had laid plans for my greatest masterpiece yet: a full-length, edited, self-published novel.The assignment, given the first week of school: with a mentorÃ¢â¬â¢s guidance, conduct research and then create an original work to be presented at the Gifted Expo in May. I knew my project the moment its title popped into my head: Deaf Girls DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Dance. After asking my seventh grade English teacher to mentor, I began poring over library books on deafness and developing a plot outline.I had to spend a minimum of an hour a day on my project, but a writer is slave to no clock. Inspiration comes in short bursts for me, so I spent many a night staring blankly at the computer screen, hoping beyond hope that something would come to my mind so I could meet my daily goal. When an idea came, my fingers typed frantically, rushing to get my words out before I lost them. If my clock read 4:30 a.m. by the time I was finished, so be it. The temporary discomfort from sleep deprivation is nothing compared to the lasting pride in finishing a chapter, and eventually, a book.The deep sense of accomplishment I feel from writing and publishing my book are nothing compared to my expectations for the future. Now that I have one novel under my belt, I am confident that I will be successful as an author in the future. After writing a novel considered almost autobiographical in many ways, I am compelled to expand my horizons and write more creative fiction while continuing to use my life experiences as inspiration. As I continue reading, I develop new ideas for writing. Deaf Girls DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Dance tells a unique story, but after reading books by well-known authors like Fitzgerald and Wharton, I want to do more than tell stories. I want to study English to perfect my craft and write books infused with beautiful imagery, riveting symbolism and subtle but strong themes, books future high school English teachers will use in their classes.I know my goal sounds impossible, but I want to go down in history as a great author of the twenty-first century. If publishing my first book at 16 isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to make history remember me, I will have to improve my skill as my career progresses. Writing only leads to more writing, and my strength comes from the confidence I gained through writing my first novel.
Question: Discuss about the Committee on Homeland Security. Answer: Introduction Failures in civil engineering works and related structures have culminated into serious destruction of property and massive loss of lives and are a phenomenon that still lives with us. Just like any other professional fields, civil engineering is not left behind in experiencing failures of systems. In as much as civil engineering does not give a lot of room for errors besides the best efforts of its professionals, it still experiences errors that lead to loss of billions of dollars by the government and individuals resulting from destruction of property. In the design of any engineering structures, special and utmost attention should be given to the determination of the greatest magnitude of any given form of load that can successfully be applied to a structure without the structure failing. In so doing it would be possible to estimate the safety factor against the failure. By 2005, reports indicated there were numerous floodwalls and levees failures that protected New Orleans and its surrounding resulting from the passage of Hurricane Katrina. The New Orleans levee system project was designed and constructed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers while the maintenance was done by the local levee boards. Upon completion of the construction, the Corps handed over the project to the local levee board. The project was 90% completed at the time it started experiencing failures. Investigations were done by a team of experts that mainly consisted of civil engineers to establish the root cause of the failure. All the investigators came to a consensus that the failure resulted from inadequate design and construction of the floodwalls and levee system by the Corps of Engineers. The engineers were found to have breached a number of term and conditions as outlined in the Orleans Parish. Improper design of the canal floodwalls at London Avenue Canal, 17th Street Canal and Industrial Canal( located on the east side north) was the primary cause of the failure of these canals. Overtopping of floodwalls and levees by the surge of the storm was the failure mechanism of for the Industrial Canal while 10% of sand in place of thick Louisiana clay for the levees that protected the New Orleans of the east was the primary cause of failure on this end. Negligent maintenance of the Gulf Outlet of River Mississippi resulted into overtopping of the levees that protected St. Bernard Parish hence resulting into failure. Flooding of the Gentility neighborhood and the Lakeview neighborhood were also as a result of oversights from the Corps Engineers who were responsible for the design and construction of the levees and floodwalls. The team of engineers had two oversights. One of the oversights was an overestimation of the strength of soil during the design of the l-walls and the canal levees. This meant that the strength of the soil that was used in the calculations of the design was higher than the strength that really existed near and under the levee at the time of Hurricane Katrina. This resulted in a destructive data interpretation since the soil that was underneath the levee was weaker than that which was applied in the design of the l-walls. Failure to consider the chances of a gap filled with water in the design of the 17th Street Canal was yet another critical engineering oversight. The gap filled with water emerged to be one of the fundamental causes of the failure of the canal. From research and analysis it was found that with the water-filled gap in place, the safety factor was reduced by approximately 30 percent. Having used a safety factor of 1.3 in the design and a decrease by 30 percent, then the safety factor would reduce to almost one which is basically a recipe for complete failure. The engineers misjudged the peat strength which was from the swamp remains on which some parts of the New Orleans were constructed. Borings of soil indicated that peat layer started at around 9.1 m under the surface and ranged from approximately 1.5 m to 6.1 m in thickness. The peat had very high water content and very low shear strength from the investigations that were carried out. As a result of the weak strength of the soil, the floodwall became very susceptible and vulnerable to the stresses that were caused by the large flood. The movement of water through the underneath soil and as the pressure of the water built up, the moving water overpowered the strength of the soil hence a sudden shift and carrying with it all the materials including the wall. The Hurricane Katrina Levee and floodwalls failure resulted in 1118 losses of lives and 135 other people reported missing. Residential property worth $21 billion was damaged and the government had to undertake another $6.7 billion for the repair and maintenance of public infrastructure that was as well destroyed. Over 124000 people lost their jobs: employees who were either directly or indirectly employed to work on the in the structure. Conclusion Complex technical issues must be taken into account when a civil engineering project fails as a result of structural disasters. This should be done with utmost concern given to life and safety. The failure of Hurricane Katrina levees and floodwalls was purely a responsibility of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. It is for this note that it is important for civil engineers to ensure no room is left for any errors be it in the design or construction stages. While most of the failures in civil engineering would be demotivating at the first glance, they are finally used as an inspiration that initiates improvements in future designs and construction. From the failures, engineers get a clue on what needs to be improved in order to generate safe structures. The errors made in the previous projects are used as the baseline of improvement aimed at enhancing and improving the safety of both human beings and their property. Determination of the factor of safety in any structure on the verge of failure is fundamental in any design and construction of engineering structures. References Tiffany E. Adams, Stability of Levees and Floodwalls Supported by Deep-mixed Shear Walls: Five Case Studies in the New Orleans Area, 4th ed., Tiffany E. Adams, Ed. Chicago, USA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2015, pp 184-194. Committee on Environment and Public Works, Evaluate the degree to which the preliminary findings on the failure of the levees are being incorporated into the restoration of hurricane protection: hearing before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth C, 1st ed., Committee on Environment and Public Works, Ed. Washington, USA: U.S. G.P.O, 2012, pp 156-198. Sandra L. Dwyer, Critical Thinking: The Art of Argument, 2nd ed., Sandra L. Dwyer, Ed. London, UK: Cengage Learning, 2014, pp 568-569. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared : Special Report of the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Together with Additional Views, 3rd ed., Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Ed. Washington, USA: Government Printing Office, 2016, pp 896-1005. United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared : Special Report of the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Together with Additional Views, United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Ed. New York, USA: Government Printing Office, 2010, pp 958-968. United States. Army. Corps of Engineers, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Lock Replacement Project, Orleans Parish: Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 6, 4th ed., United States. Army. Corps of Engineers, Ed. New York, USA: United States. Army. Corps of Engineers, 2011, pp 129-135. Adams Teffer, A Failure of Initiative: Final Report of the Select Bipartisan Committee To Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, February 15, 2006, 6th ed., Adams Teffer, Ed. London, UK: Government Printing Office, 2013, pp 661-700. Newton-Matza, Floodplain Management in the United States: An Assessment Report : Volume 1 Summary, 3rd ed., Newton-Matza, Ed. New Delhi, Australia: Floodplain Management in the United States: An Assessment Report : Volume 1 Summary, 2012, pp 236-258.